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Cannabis has been in use for centuries and is now the most widely used drug available. For its ability to induce relaxation and feelings of excitement, that's pretty understandable. In short, many states have legalized its use.
But we know that most drugs have side effects the longer they're used. If cannabis can influence how we think and feel, how does it affect our minds in the long term?
Recent studies show that cannabis use can affect several cognitive and psychological processes.
Cannabis contains tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), its main psychoactive compound that induces the "high" feeling. Notably, THC acts on the part of the brain known as the endocannabinoid system, made up of receptors that respond to the chemical effects of cannabis. These receptors regulate the release of dopamine, GABA, and glutamate.
Dopamine plays a role in pleasure, motivation, and learning. On the other hand, GABA and glutamate are involved in cognition, such as memory and learning. Of course, we know that these cognitive processes develop over time as the brain develops up till the mid-20s when brain development finally stops.
Now, the United Nations on Drugs and Crime has reported that young adults are the largest consumers of recreational cannabis. About 35% of people between 18 and 25 use cannabis, and only 10% of people above 26 use it.
This shows that most people using recreational cannabis are those whose brains are still underdeveloped, making them more vulnerable to the cognitive and psychological effects of cannabis.
Cannabis can influence cognition, particularly in people with cannabis use disorder (CUD). These people are prone to cannabis cravings, which usually disrupt their daily activities and living.
The research tested 39 people with CUD. The control group was made up of 20 people who have never or rarely used cannabis.
The results showed that participants with CUD had generally worse performance on memory tests than the control group. Clearly, cannabis impaired their mental process responsible for flexible thinking.
Interestingly, the cognitive effects were stronger in those who started using the drug at an early age.
Nonetheless, mild cannabis users also suffer cognitive impairment, as they tend to make riskier, more spontaneous decisions with difficulty planning.
While male cannabis users had more difficulty remembering or recognizing things, female users had more problems with attention and executive function.
Cannabis influences how we feel and think and, consequently, our mental health.
In the research, cannabis in moderate users subtly affected the reward system. However, the researchers believe this effect may be more profound in chronic users.
Furthermore, cannabis use can lead to anhedonia, an inability to feel pleasure in normally pleasurable activities. We can deduce this to result from the brain's dependency on cannabis to feel pleasure.
In adolescents, cannabis use is a risk factor for developing schizophrenia and other psychotic experiences.
Although we don't understand the link between cannabis use and psychotic episodes, it is likely due to dopamine and glutamate action in these processes.
The cognitive and psychological effects of cannabis are largely dependent on the dosage and frequency of use. So, chronic users are affected more severely.
Also, mild users will feel the effects weakening the longer they abstain from cannabis. But we don't yet know if the effects can completely go or if they are permanent.
But one thing's for sure: cannabis use can affect our minds, and it is crucial to start creating awareness among young users who are more vulnerable to these effects.